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*反 問 句. 附 加 問 句. 與 附 和 句

 

178. 肯定的敘述句 -- 用否定的反問句

否定的敘述句 -- 用肯定的反問句

------------ --------------------

be V be V

一般 V do (does, did)

V Phrase first Aux. V

have 當Aux. -- 用 have

當 V -- 用 do

 

had to did

 

had better had

would rather would

ought to ought

 

there there

these/ those they

 

this/that

V-ing/To+V it

 

N. Pron.

Pron. Pron.

 

e.g. The bridge has been built, hasn't it?

e.g. He had to help you, didn't he?

e.g. You had better go for a doctor, hadn't you?

 

考題: We had better wait for your girlfriend Molly, _____?

(A)hadn't we (B)don't we (C)didn't we (D)shan't we

Ans.: (A) (84 彰師大 商科)

 

179. 表否定的字如下: not, never, nothing, scarcely, hardly,

little, few, seldom, rarely, no doubt, by no means,

in no way, on no account, under no circumstances,

in no situation, nowhere, in no time, in vain,

in no case, ...

 

e.g. He seldom goes there, does he?

 

180. 敘 述 句 附 加 問 句

--------------- ------------------

Let's shall we

Let us will you

Let me will you

Let's not all right or O.K.

V (祈使句) will you

e.g. Let's go, shall we?

e.g. Let me go, will you?

e.g. Let's not tell her, all right?

e.g. Please open the window, will you?

 

181. 複合句之附加問句用法:

 

(1) 以名詞子句來決定

 

I + say/ think/ believe/ guess/ consider/ suppose/

am afraid + 名詞子句

e.g. I think that he is honest, isn't he?

e.g. I guess that Mary has left, hasn't she?

 

(2) 以主要子句來決定

 

e.g. He was eating when you came, wasn't he?

 

(3) 有對等連接詞 and,or,but 時, 以最接近的句子為準

 

e.g. They were absent yesterday, but Mary wasn't,

was she?

 

 

182. 肯定的敘述句 -- 用否定的附和句

否定的敘述句 -- 用肯定的附和句

------------ ------------------------------

be V so be + S.

一般 V so do (does,did) + S

 

be V neither (and nor) be + S.

一般 V neither (and nor) do (does,did) + S

 

e.g. I am a good student. So is she.

e.g. I like honest friends. So does she.

e.g. I am not a good student. Neither (And nor) is she.

e.g. I don't like apples. Neither does she.

 

考題: I have never been to the U.S., _____ .

(A)nor he has (B)so has he (C)nor does he

(D)nor has he Ans.: (D) (84 彰師大 商科)

 

P.S. I am a good student, too. (也)

She is not honest, either. (也)


 
  
*倒 裝 句 構

 
183.

原 句 型 倒 裝 句 型

------------------- ------------------------

S + be... Be + S...

S + Aux. + V Aux. + S + V

S + have + P.P. Have + S + P.P.

S + 一般 V.... Do (does, did) + S + V

 

常出現之五種倒裝句構:

(1)否定倒裝句:

e.g. I have never seen such a pretty girl as she (is).

-- Never have I seen such a pretty girl as she.

 

考題: _____ so many people been out of work as today.

(A)In the past, there never have (B)More than ever

before (C)Never before have (D)Formerly, there

never were Ans.: (C) (84 彰師大 商科)

 

(2)so/ such 倒裝句:

e.g. She is so kind that she deserves all my respect.

-- So kind is she that she deservesl all my respect.

 

(3)地方Adv. 倒裝句:

e.g. A boy stood there.

-- There stood a boy.

 

(4)完全倒裝句:

e.g. He who works hard is respectable.

-- Respectable is he who works hard.

 

(5)as 取代 though 的倒裝句:

e.g. Though he is nice, I dislike him.

-- Nice as he is, I dislike him.

 

184. 否定的副詞在句首時, 句子必須倒裝:

 

常見否定副詞字如下: never, scarcely, hardly,

little, seldom, rarely, ...

 

常見否定副詞片語如下: no doubt, by no means,

in no way, on no account, under no circumstances,

in no situation, nowhere, in no time, in vain,

in no case, not only (not merely), ...

 

常見否定副詞子句如下: (只有三種)

not until he came, only when he came, only after he came

 

e.g. Rarely does my father go shopping with my mother.

e.g. Not only did he come, but (also) he saw her.

e.g. Not until the age of thirty did she get married.

 

185. 一...就... 的倒裝句型

 

No sooner had + P.P. than V-ed

Hardly " when "

Scarcely " before "

 

e.g. No sooner had I left home than it began to rain.

e.g. Hardly had I left home when it began to rain.

e.g. Scarcely had I left home before it began to rain.

 

but: As soon as I left home, it began to rain.

 

186. only + 介系詞片語:

可視為否定副詞片語, 置於句首時, 亦採倒裝句.

 

e.g. Only by doing so can you succeed.

 

187. 地方Adv. 倒裝句

地方Adv. / 地方Adv.片語 + V.I. + S

 

e.g. There goes a bus.

e.g. Under the tree stood an old man.

 

188. S 為代名詞 (it, she, they...等) 時, 不可採倒裝句.

 

e.g. He stood there.

There stood he. (x)

There he stood. (o)

 

189. 介副詞視為地方Adv. 置於句首時, 亦採倒裝句.

 

e.g. A boy walked in. -- In walked a boy.

e.g. The car dashed off. -- Off dashed the car.

e.g. John came down. -- Down came John.

e.g. The boy sits down. -- Down sits the boy.

 

P.S. 所稱介副詞, 即指表場所之介系詞 (e.g. in, out, down,

up, off...), 此類字之後無 O. 時為介副詞 (由 Prep.

變成的 Adv.), 反之, 此類字之後有 O. 時為介系詞.

 

190. 在...有 There be + S...

There is/are/ was/ were ...

 

P.S. 無明確的人或動物做 S. 時, 不用 have/ has/ had 表示 有

 

191. 應用語法:

 

(1) There will be ... (將有...)

(2) There used to be... (以前有...)

(3) There seems (appears) to be... (似乎有...)

(4) There can be no... = There cannot be... (不可能有...)

(5) There have/has been... (已經有...)

(6) There must be... (必定有...)

 

192. 常見會話用語:

 

(1) There you go again. (你又來這一套了.)

 

(2) Here we are. (到了.)

 

(3) Here you are. (or Here you go.) (拿去吧!)

 

考題: May I use your pen ? (A)Never mind. (B)That's a

good idea. (C)Yes. You are here. (D)Yes. Here

you are. (E)Don't mention it.

Ans.: (D) (84 師大工教 工科)

 

(4) There you are. (or There it is.) (在那裡.)

 

193. 假設語氣的倒裝句型: (何秀華)

 

If S + had/ should/ were -- Had/ Should Were + S

 

在假設語氣中, 當連接詞if省略時, 何秀華移至句首.

 

e.g. If you had studied hard, you would have passed the

exam.

Had you studied hard, you would have passed the exam.

 

e.g. If it should rain tomorrow, I will stay home.

Should it rain tomorrow, I will stay home.

 

e.g. If Peter were here now, he would do me a favor.

Were Peter here now, he would do me a favor.


 
 

*五 大 句 型 與 三 大 子 句
 

-- V.I. (1)完全不及物: S + V.I.

五大句型: V. (2)不完全不及物: S + V.I. + S.C.

-- V.T. (3)完全及物: S + V + O

(4)授與動詞: S + V.T. + I.O. + D.O.

(5)不完全不及物: S + V.T. + O + O.C.

 

三大子句: 名詞子句 (N. Clause)

形容詞子句 (Adj. Clause)

副詞子句 (Adv. Clause)

 

194. 完全不及物: S + V.I.

 

e.g. Flowers bloom.

e.g. The birds fly.

e.g. It rained last night.

 

195. 不完全不及物: S + V.I. + S.C.

 

e.g. I feel hungry.

e.g. She is a nurse.

e.g. Juice tastes sweet.

 

Linking Verb + Adj.

Linking Verb: seem, appear, feel, look, sound, smell

taste, become, come, go, get, grow, run,

turn, fall, remain, continue, stay

 

196. 完全及物: S + V + O

 

e.g. I love you.

e.g. Thank you very much.

e.g. I'll enjoy myself.

 

197. 不完全不及物: S + V.T. + O + O.C.

 

e.g. We elected her chairperson.

e.g. I found the classroom empty.

e.g. He had his hair cut.

 

198. 授與動詞: S + V.T. + I.O. + D.O.

 

e.g. Please buy me a book.

= Please buy a book for me.

 

e.g. I'll write him a letter.

= I'll write a letter to him.

 

e.g. He asked me a question.

= He asked a question of me.

 

e.g. Tell me what he said.

 

Dative Verb: (1) pay/ give/ lend/ send/ show/ offer/

tell/ sell/ teach/ write/ bring/

deliver + to

 

(2) buy/ make/ get/ choose/ leave/ order/

+ for

 

(3) ask + of

 

(4) play + on

 

考題: He gave his son money for the ___ of his school books.

(A)income (B)ceremony (C)enterprise (D)purchase

Ans.: (D) (84 彰師大 商科)

 

考題: Sue: What should I do? I lost Kathy's umbrella.

Joe: Don't worry. _____, so you can buy her a new one.

(A)I'm ready (B)I'll fix it (C)I don't feel good

about you (D)I'll lend you some money (E)I'll borrow

some money from you

Ans.: (D) [83 師大工教]

 

199. 名詞子句 (N. Clause): 連接詞--賴惠怡

賴: that, 惠: whether, 怡:(疑問詞) what, when, how...

 

(1) 作主詞:

e.g. That the earth is round is true.

e.g. What you are learning seems difficult.

 

(2) 作受詞:

e.g. Do you know where he lives?

e.g. He only laughed at what she said.

 

(3) 作補語:

e.g. My opinion is that you should not go alone.

e.g. My parents make me what I am today.

 

(4) 作同位語:

e.g. The fact that Columbus discovered America

is true.

e.g. The fact that the sun rises in the east

is true.

 

(口訣:去蕪存菁法)

 

200. 形容詞子句 (Adj. Clause)

 

(1) 修飾主詞:

e.g. The student who answered the question was Mary.

e.g. The story which you told me was interesting.

 

(2) 修飾受詞:

e.g. Heaven helps those who help themselves.

e.g. I lost the dictionary which I bought yesterday.

 

(3) 修飾主詞補語:

e.g. This is the reason why he didn't come.

e.g. This is the apartment where I lived two years ago.

 

201. 副詞子句 (Adv. Clause)

 

(1) 修飾動詞:

e.g. As soon as I reached the station, the train left.

e.g. If he comes tomorrow, you will see him.

e.g. When it rains, I usually go to school by bus.

e.g. We climbed higher so that we might get a better

view.

 

(2) 修飾形容詞:

e.g. I am afraid that I will fail.

e.g. We were glad because we had a good time then.

 

(3) 修飾副詞:

e.g. This work is not so easy as you think.

e.g. He ran so quickly that I couldn't catch him.


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